Moscow Metro History
Conocer el metro de Moscú; Visitar el metro de Moscú; Que ver en el metro de Moscú

Visit Moscow Metro

What to see in the Moscow metro, one of the most emblematic places in the capital. Visiting the Moscow metro is ideal during a guided tour to delight your eyes on its structure while you know its history. Knowing the Moscow metro has never been better.

Explore the Moscow metro

Moscow Metro History

If you plan to visit the Moscow metro, you must know its history: the Moscow metro carries up to 55-60% of all passenger traffic within the city. Historically, it became the first in the USSR, and remains the largest in the post-soviet space. On a global scale, the metro of 3 cities – Tokyo, Seoul and Beijing – is being used with greater intensity.
Moscow metro began its history from May 15, 1935, when it was opened for public use, although test trips were carried out from the beginning of the first train in October 1934 the first station built on a large scale.

The first line was only 11.6 km long, connecting 13 stations, among which there were 12 trains for 4 cars. From  Sokolniki to Okhotny station was a line, which then branched into two: Park of Culture and Smolenskaya

Beginnings of the Moscow metro

Initially, Moscow metro was named LM Kaganovich, who in 1931 presented a report in the Plenary of the Central Committee of the CPSU on the need to enter the subway. That’s when the decision to build was made. But since 1955 it was renamed, being so far called the Moscow Metro.

During the Second World War the subway was used as a shelter for bombs. But as soon as the incursions of German aviation ceased; the subway began not only to restore, but to continue. New metro lines were carried out even during the war years; since there are commemorative plaques in 7 stations.
Postwar stations were also built with the possibility not only of turning them into an air raid shelter, but in the case of a nuclear, bacteriological or chemical attack. So there were stations of high depth. However, the sealed doors are equipped at the exits of all stations and tunnels, everywhere there are diesel power plants and ventilation shafts with filters.

Now the metro has 12 metro lines, the number of stations has reached 192, there are 27 exchange nodes. Only 10 stations are on land and 5 on the ground (on bridges and overpasses), the rest are underground. The total length has already exceeded 320.9 km. Each day around 8-9 million passengers are transported. Like the rest of the transport network, the subway also has a radial ring structure. In addition to the classic subway lines, Moscow has land lines, light subway lines and a monorail of land.

What to see in the Moscow metro today

To date, tickets are without contact (contactless cards and smart cards): transport map is applied to automatic turnstile validation at the entrance and exit of the metro. There are tickets for individual trips and more profitable reusable travel cards, there are tickets for 90 minutes. Individual tickets are suitable for all public transportation in the city.

The Moscow metro is not only a convenient and accessible component of the transport system; but also an architectural monument. Many stations are assigned with a rich finish, so here you can see examples of architecture and art belonging to the era of socialist realism. 44 stations are among the objects of cultural heritage. In May 2010, the 75th anniversary of the metro stations opened commemorative plaques with the names of the architects and opening date.

To date, more than 10 thousand trains are lost on 12 metro lines with a total length of 320.9 km with 192 stations. On average, more than 8 million passengers use the services of the Moscow Metro every day. And this is the highest rate in the world!

In the plans of the Moscow government, even before 2020, 64 new stations will be commissioned. At the same time, the subway will have to leave the ring road of Moscow.

Development of the Moscow metro for years

Schemes in the Moscow metro has undergone many changes, reflecting not only the relative position of the lines, but especially the fashion and design inherent in different periods of our history.

The first line scheme

The scheme is taken from the Trud editorial brochure in 1935. In the lobbies hang other schemes, which can be seen in some photos from the 1930s.

Unfortunately, it was not possible to determine exactly how to look at the general cargo scheme during the period 1937-1953.

In 1954, the black and white diagrams hang in the wagons. All lines are indicated in black, the circuit is close to the correct “cartographic” line of map stations and location.

Metro map 1954

Subsequently, the design of the scheme changed very slightly. The changes referred only to the launch of new sites. In 1958, the lines of the diagrams are shown in different colors. It is this color solution that has come to pass unchanged to this day. It should be noted that in all cities the meters of the former USSR, the first line will always be indicated by a red color, the second – blue (sometimes green), and third, respectively, in green or blue.

Metro map 1964
Moscow metro map 1967

Note that in the diagram Kaluga and Riga radios do not form a single line; and they even show in different colors. The fact is that during this period only planned extension lines and the construction of new stations of radios of the Circlulo line; no need to connect diameter radii through the city center. Only later the decision was considered wrong; and the construction of the central zone formed the Kaluga-Riga line.

Cardinally the design of the scheme changes at the beginning of the 70 years. The smooth curves of the lines disappear in the past. Now in fashion, simplicity, clarity and speed. circular line for the first time interpreted a perfect circle, and the radius – the straight lines. The image of the subway logo – the stylized letter “M” – has also changed. If the 70-year-old scheme still buffs for Violet metro line, at the end of the decade, all lines are represented by straight lines with no angles and sprains.

Metro map 1978
Metro map 1970

Since 1979, a new outline of lines appears in the carriages. Now the annular line represents two semicircles connected by vertical straight lines. The lines become softer again.

The stations in the peripheral part of the city are now being drawn near it.
This solution has allowed to increase the size and describe more clearly the central part of the circuit where the topology of the network is more complicated.

At the same time there and the current logo of the Moscow Metro – the stylized letter “M” in the red circle trimmed in blue, similar lining the tunnel contours.

Metro map 1979

However, this version of the scheme for a long time did not take root. With the beginning of the line Serpukhpvsko-Timiryazevskaya first portion, new scheme. Circular line is drawn in a new circle on the right, and stations outside the central part are not pressed against each other. At the beginning, the line represented by dashed lines, but was later replaced by a more straightened one.

Metro map 1983
Metro map 1986

The extension of the Kaluga range in 1987, the design of the circuit has changed again. The Timiryazevsky and Lublin radios under construction appeared on the diagram. Now all the lines were directed strictly horizontally, vertically or at a 45 degree angle. The only exception – the line of the ring – has retained its mark in the form of a regular circle. Repeatedly changing the details; but keeping the basic principles of composition, the design up to September 2003.

Metro map 1987
Metro map 1998

In the most recent versions of this scheme the construction works were eliminated, and all the names of the stations are duplicated in America.

Metro map 2002

Finally, in September 2003, a completely new design of the underground car scheme was introduced.

In the scheme, which was known as “The scheme of the rapid transport lines of Moscow”, added light rail line in the south of Butovo and Solntsevo, monorail line from the station “Timiryazevskaya” to “Exhibition Center”. They show built areas Arbat-Pokrovskaya and Lublin-Dmitrov line. However, for some reason it is not shown on the “mini-metro” line at MIBC Moscow-City and the southern extension of the Lublin radio.

The guarantees of the clandestine management, for the comfort of passengers the location of the lines more to reality, the lines themselves have become thinner. However, this is a controversial decision. The approach scheme on a real scale, involved the reduction of the central part, the most difficult part of the scheme, where most of the intersection lines. This, in turn, led to the need to reduce the font size in the names of the station. The circuit became difficult to read, especially at a distance.

The main task of the load scheme is to correctly transfer the topology of the network, instead of the scale. In this case, the scale distortion is a concession rather than justified in the name of the convenience of perception and ease of reading. After all, the scheme is looked at not only by the young; but also by the elderly, not everyone has an ideal vision. And do not forget that not all passengers in Russian – the native, and read the fine print in a foreign language; and even in the comfort of not moving the stuffed car is much more difficult. And the (almost) scale schemes hang in the halls, where you can carefully approach and examine carefully.

Metro map 2003

Partially the layout line has been changed, but in some specific places (for example, a curve near the Sokolniki line “Sport”) the kinship “head” with the original has been emitted. Added Moskva River and the Yauza represented at all in circuit style (not observed discrete directions).

The plan caused a lot of complaints from the passengers. The Muscovites complained that the labels are difficult to read; Due to the narrowness and the expressionless lines it is not easy to understand the topology of the network, especially in the central part of the complex. The experiment was considered unsuccessful and at the end of 2003 a new variant of the wagon scheme was presented.
As of the previous version, the new scheme has inherited the name – “Driving of the rapid transport lines of Moscow,” the image of the Moskva River and the Yauza. However, in general, there was a return to the traditions of the Moscow wagon schemes. The ring line is represented by a regular circle, the lines straighten and become thicker. Due to the increase in the central part of the scheme that has stopped being a large scale, but the section included between the stations in the peripheral part of the city on the left, which maintains similarity.

In the new scheme, there are distinctive signs of light rail and the “monorail transport system”; the only line that is designated as valid, although at the time of visits programs; opening date has not yet been named, and commissioning is not before January 2004 was expected. In addition, the diagram shows a line under construction of mini-metro, the line starts from the “Kievskaya”; although in reality the movement of mini-subway trains will be aligned with the line on the site Filevskaya “Alexandrovsky Garden” – “Kievskaya”.

Interesting design solutions for the future inclusion of the Filevskaya Arbat-Mantle of the Virgin online site. The points of the future interface are indicated by arrows.

Metro map 2003

However, the new scheme is not without deficiencies. The selected image style stations and, in particular, hubs; they make the scheme unnecessarily saturated; which causes irritation and “hurts the eyes.” It is not clear why it was necessary to renounce a successful decision; intuitive and quiet taken in a sample of 2001-2003 schemes.

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